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  • Rock and Soil Mechanics
    Supervised by: Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Publisher: Science China Press
    Period:Monthly Publication
    Editor-in-Chief:KONG LingWei
    Sponsored by :Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Journal Tags: EI
    Language: Chinese
    Release Date: 1979
    ISSN 1000-7598 CN 42-1199/O3
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Rock and Soil Mechanics(Monthly) is an academic journal about rock & soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, started in 1979. It is sponsored by Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Its ISSN is 1000-7598. Rock and Soil Mechanics is edited and published by Science Press. It is indexed by The Engineering Index (EI Compendex) ,Scopus and Emerging Source Citation Index(ESCI). Its full texts are included by some databases such as Chinese Science Citation Database(CSCD) , Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database(CSTPCD) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),etc. In addition, it has been a core mechanics and building sciences journal in A Guide to the Core Journals of China since 2004 year. Some of its articles have translated into English and publushied in ytlx.whrsm.ac.cn and JTP(http://jtp.cnki.net/bilingual)   ...More
Current Issue
19 June 2024, Volume 45 Issue 6
Fundamental Theory and Experimental Research
Experimental study on reinforcement of tailings sand by microbially induced carbonate precipitation at low pH
LAI Yong-ming, YU Jin, LIU Shi-yu, CAI Yan-yan, TU Bing-xiong, LIU Qian,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1583-1596.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1069
Abstract ( 201 )  
Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of bacterial solution concentration and pH on calcium carbonate production and the bioflocculation lag period during microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) reinforcement of tailings sand. The effectiveness of this method in reinforcing tailings sand was evaluated using tests for permeability, water retention, resistance to raindrop erosion, wind erosion resistance and penetration. By analyzing the influence of pH on urease activity and the equilibrium of the carbonate system, and observing the microstructure of tailings sand through scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction tests, the mechanism of MICP reinforcement of tailings sand at low pH was revealed. Results showed that the MICP method at low pH significantly improved the mechanical properties of tailings sand. After a single spray treatment, the wind erosion mass of tailings sand was reduced to zero, and the permeability coefficient decreased by an order of magnitude. Additionally, the raindrop and wind erosion mass of tailings sand treated with a high-concentration bacterial solution at pH = 4 was also reduced to zero. Low pH temporarily inhibited urease activity and disrupted the carbonate system equilibrium, delaying calcium carbonate precipitation. This allowed calcite to uniformly fill the intergranular pores of tailings sand, cementing the sand particles together. This research presents a novel approach to tailings dam reinforcement and tailings sand treatment, elucidating its reinforcement mechanism and offering theoretical and experimental support for the application of low-pH MICP reinforcement of tailings sand.
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Experimental study on the effect of roughness on the vertical bearing capacity and deformation characteristics of a single pile
LENG Wu-ming, DING Rong-feng, YANG Qi, CHEN Chen, DENG Yu-chen, XU Fang, RUAN Bo,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1597-1607.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0722
Abstract ( 119 )  
To investigate the influence of pile surface roughness on the bearing capacity and deformation characteristics of a single pile under vertical loading, a series of static loading tests was performed on a self-developed “multifunctional static and dynamic model test system for pile foundation”. Three single model piles with the smooth, random, and ribbed inerratic surface roughness were manufactured and their values of roughness (Rn) were obtained through 3D shape scanning calculation. The test results show that the ultimate bearing capacity and pile stiffness increase with augmenting of Rn, while the settlement of the pile top and its unloading rebound decrease with it. Specifically, the ribbed pile can effectively improve the pile’s bearing capacity and control the pile top’s vertical deformation. The pile side resistance and the strengthening effect of the side resistance near the pile tip also increase with increase in surface roughness. The distribution pattern of pile side resistance evolves from “single hump” to “cone top column” and finally to “slope type” with increased loads on pile top. The value of β  (parameter in β  method) increases with the increase in surface roughness and decreases with the increase in depth. The ultimate pile side resistance and the value of β  of the ribbed pile are far greater than that of smooth and sandpaper piles. These conclusions reveal influence mechanism of the buried depth and surface roughness on the value of β . Pile surface roughness affects the type of load transmission function of the pile tip in saturated sand. For smooth and sandpaper piles, the load transmission function of the pile tip follows a hyperbolic equation, whereas for ribbed piles, it follows a linear equation. These research findings are crucial for fully understanding the laws and mechanisms governing the influence of surface roughness on the bearing capacity and deformation characteristics of single piles.
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Creep characteristics and damage constitutive model of red sandstone under dynamic disturbance
FAN Lai-yu, WU Zhi-jun, CHU Zhao-fei, WENG Lei, WANG Zhi-yang, LIU Quan-sheng, CHEN Jie,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1608-1622.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1067
Abstract ( 107 )  
To investigate the creep characteristics of rocks under dynamic disturbance, multistage impact-disturbance creep experiments were conducted on fine-grained red sandstone using a self-developed impact-disturbance creep loading experiment device. Transient deformation and creep behaviors were analyzed under different creep stresses and disturbance energies. The effects of disturbance energies on long-term strengths were obtained through indirect calculations. The results indicate that dynamic disturbance densifies the specimen at lower creep stresses and intensifies internal damage when the creep stress exceeds a certain threshold. Transient deformation and creep strain induced by dynamic disturbance initially decrease and then increase with creep stress. As dynamic disturbance energy increases, the failure strain of the specimen increases, but the long-term strength decrease. The correlation between long-term strength and disturbance energy, dynamic disturbance unit, and disturbance-damage viscous element are introduced to establish a viscoplastic disturbance-damage creep model. This model, validated by experimental data, accurately describes the transient deformation and creep behavior of sandstone under the combined action of static constant load and dynamic disturbance. The research findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications for the support design and safe production of drilling and blasting tunnels.
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Analytical solution for mechanical properties of tunnel influenced by longitudinal pressure and reinforced steel plate
JIANG Xue-hui, YAN Jian-wei, LUO Wen-jun, LI Jia-bao, XU Chang-jie
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1623-1632.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1224
Abstract ( 61 )  
In order to quickly and accurately evaluate the effect of longitudinal compressive pressure and reinforced steel plate on the mechanical properties of shield tunnel, we established stress equilibrium equations that consider the coupling effect of longitudinal pressure, bending moment and reinforced steel plate based on the joints of shield tunnel lining, and finally derived the analytical solution. The feasibility of the method was confirmed by comparing with the results of classical equivalent bending stiffness and numerical simulations. The results indicate that the neutral axial decreases with the increasing longitudinal pressure, thickness and elastic modulus of the reinforced steel plate. The equivalent bending stiffness of the shield tunnel decreases with the increasing bending moment (maximum and minimum equivalent bending stiffness are independent of the bending moment). It follows an S-curve pattern correlation with the longitudinal pressure, and shows a nonlinear correlation with the thickness and elastic modulus of the reinforced steel plate. The equivalent bending stiffness of the tunnel with reinforced steel plate is 6.58 times that of the tunnel without steel plate. The bending bearing capacity is nonlinear with respect to the longitudinal pressure, the thickness and elastic modulus of reinforced steel plate. The opening of tunnel lining joints is nonlinear with respect to the bending moment, but inversely nonlinear to the longitudinal pressure, the thickness and elastic modulus of the reinforced steel plate. This analytical solution reveals the evolution of the mechanical properties of shield tunnels under the influence of longitudinal pressure and reinforced steel plate.
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Study on the influence of bursting liability of coal on the ultra-low friction effect at deep coal-rock interface
LI Li-ping, HU Xue-jin, PAN Yi-shan, LI Ming-hui,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1633-1642.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1216
Abstract ( 64 )  
To reveal the influence mechanism of bursting liability of coal on ultra-low friction type rockburst under dynamic load disturbance, coal samples with different bursting liabilities were studied. Firstly, the bursting liability of coal was measured by uniaxial compression test, and then the self-developed ultra-low friction test device of coal-rock interface was used. Slip displacement and kinetic energy of the coal samples were used to characterize the strength of the ultra-low friction effect during impact. The ultra-low friction tests on coal samples with different bursting liabilities under stress wave disturbance were conducted. The results indicate that: (1) The strength of ultra-low friction effect is influenced by the disturbance frequency, with a significant frequency influence zone. The ranges of significant frequency influence zones for coal with strong, weak and no bursting liability are 2.5−3.5 Hz, 2.0−3.0 Hz and 1.5−2.5 Hz, respectively. The ultra-low friction effect is more likely to occur at the coal-rock interface within the significant frequency influence zone. The significant frequency influence zone shifts to the right as the bursting liability of coal increases. (2) The ultra-low friction effect strength is positively correlated with the disturbance amplitude. Coal with strong bursting liability is more likely to occur ultra-low friction effect under high strength disturbance. (3) The fitting function relationship between the effective elastic energy release rate index and kinetic energy is established, using the coal bursting liability index to comprehensively evaluate the strength of ultra-low friction effect.
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Centrifuge load test on ultimate bearing capacity of geosynthetic-reinforced soil abutment
ZHAO Chong-xi, XU Chao, WANG Qing-ming, ZHANG Sheng, LI Hao-yu,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1643-1650.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1084
Abstract ( 70 )  
Geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) abutment is a load-bearing structure in bridge engineering, and its ultimate bearing capacity has not been recognized clearly. In this study, five GRS abutment centrifuge load tests were conducted under plane strain conditions. The effects of reinforcement strength, setback, and width of bearing area on the ultimate bearing capacity and failure mode of GRS abutments were investigated. The results show that the reinforcement strength significantly impacts the ultimate bearing capacity of GRS abutments. GRS abutments using high-strength reinforcement maintained stability during the loading process. It was observed that the ultimate bearing capacity of GRS abutments with low-strength reinforcement increased with the increase of setback, but its growth trend attenuated. As the bearing area width increased, the ultimate bearing capacity decreased. Compared with test results, the current semi-empirical and semi-theoretical formulas significantly underestimate the ultimate bearing capacity of GRS abutments. The observed failure surfaces all developed from the rear edge of the bearing area, extended downward at an angle to the facing, and terminated at approximately 0.5H (H is the GRS abutment height). The setback and width of bearing area affected the form and location of the failure surfaces, as well as the rupture of the reinforcement near the facing. Existing methods cannot accurately predict the bottom endpoint location and morphology below the bearing area of the failure surface. The increase in the setback and width of bearing area caused the peak strain location of each layer reinforcement to shift towards the interior of the abutment. The reinforcement strain concentrated near the free facing side of the abutment.
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Study on band gap characteristics of three-dimensional periodic structure wave impeding block
GAO Meng, ZHANG Shuo, KONG Xiang-long,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1651-1660.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1229
Abstract ( 42 )  
The wave impeding block (WIB) is commonly used to control vibration pollution caused by vibration sources such as power machines, rail transit, and construction. However, the WIB is limited by the cut-off frequency of soil layer, resulting in a narrow vibration isolation frequency band, making targeted vibration isolation in a specific frequency range difficult. Based on the principle of phononic crystal, a three-dimensional periodic structural wave impeding block (PSWIB) is proposed. The band gaps of the three-dimensional PSWIB with cube and sphere scatters are calculated using the COMSOL finite element method. The effects of structural and material parameters on band gap characteristics are discussed, and orthogonal test optimization design is conducted. Both theoretical and numerical calculation show that the attenuation zone obtained by the three-dimensional finite periodic structure wave impeding block is consistent with the band gap range of the infinite periodic wave impeding block, which has band gap. The maximum amplitude attenuation in the vibration attenuation zone can reach 54 dB. Compared to traditional wave impeding block, the three-dimensional periodic structure wave impeding block broadens the vibration isolation frequency band, overcomes the cut-off frequency limitation, and allows for the design of material parameters based on the vibration source characteristics to meet target frequency isolation requirements.
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Bearing characteristics and calculation method for pullout capacity of double-blade screw anchors under inclined loading
HU Wei, LI Di-zhu, LIN Zhi, FENG Shi-jin, HUANG Yong-xiang,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1661-1674.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1025
Abstract ( 51 )  
Currently, the understanding of the load bearing characteristic and mechanism of multi-blade screw anchor is not complete, and the calculation method of bearing capacity is also not mature. In this paper, the multi-angle inclined pullout model tests of the double-blade screw anchor were carried out using a self-made model test device, and the influence of load inclination angle and burial depth ratio on load-displacement curves and bearing factor was analyzed. By quantifying the horizontal and vertical control degree, the coupling effect of the two directions was analyzed. Based on numerical simulation, the influence of anchor plate spacing and load inclination angle on the soil pressure on the anchor plate was calibrated, and a calculation method for the influence coefficient of soil pressure on the anchor plate was proposed. An approximation calculation method for soil pressure considering the influence of displacement and the p-y curve method were introduced to construct an inclined loading mechanical model of screw anchor with double blades. Furthermore, the calculation method and corresponding steps for inclined pullout bearing capacity were proposed, and good results were achieved in the calculation of 3 test cases. The research ideas of the model and calculation method in this paper can be extended to other cases with multiple anchor blades, but the screw anchor needs to meet the prerequisite of rigid short pile.
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Experimental and numerical study on mechanical behaviors of granite subjected to impact shear force
YUAN Wei, LI Jian-chun, LI Xing,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1675-1685.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1033
Abstract ( 77 )  
To investigate the mechanical properties of rocks under dynamic shear load, experiments were conducted on cubic granite specimens under different normal stresses and impact velocities using the impact-induced direct shear method. The dynamic shear deformation evolution process of granite was analyzed, and the effects of normal stress and impact velocity on shear deformation and failure patterns of granite were discussed. Subsequently, the impact-induced direct shear experiments of granite were simulated using particle flow code. The evolution mechanism of shear deformation and damage was further explored from a microscopic perspective. The results show that the normal stress varies continuously during the shear deformation of the specimen, and the normal stress corresponding to the peak shear stress can reach several times the initial value. Two types of shear stress-shear displacement curves, rebound-type and fracture-type, were obtained. With an increase in initial normal stress, the peak shear stress increases while the peak shear displacement and maximum shear displacement decrease; with an increase in impact velocity, both peak shear stress and maximum shear displacement increase. Fractures in granite specimens contain a main fracture and multiple wing cracks. As normal stress and impact velocity increase, the main fracture profile becomes flat from wavy, and the fracture surface becomes smooth from rough, possibly due to frictional slip. The initiation fracture of granite specimens originates from the interior and then extends to the boundary along the shear direction. The direction of fracture initiation is oblique to the shear direction, consistent with the inclination of the contact force concentration zone. The experimental method used in this study provides a reference for testing dynamic shear mechanical properties, and the findings can help reveal the mechanism of dynamic engineering disasters induced by shear fracture of rocks.
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Prediction method for load-settlement response of a single pile in sand based on an interface constitutive model
ZHOU Pan, LI Jing-pei, LI Pan-pan, LIU Geng-yun, ZHANG Chao-zhe,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1686-1698.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0826
Abstract ( 60 )  
A novel method for predicting the load-settlement response of a single pile in sands is developed based on an interface constitutive model. Firstly, a rigorous nonlinear load-transfer model for the pile-soil interface is derived from the soil-structure interface constitutive model. This model incorporates the beneficial features of the adopted interface constitutive model and effectively simulates fundamental interface characteristics, such as strain hardening (or softening), normal shear dilation, and stress path dependency occurring at the pile-soil interface. Additionally, a hyperbolic load-transfer model is employed to simulate the nonlinear stress-displacement relationship between the pile end and soil. The parameters for the aforementioned load-transfer model can be calibrated through experimental interface shear tests and geotechnical experiments. Subsequently, a one-dimensional computational model for analyzing the load-settlement response of a single pile is proposed based on the load transfer method, with numerical solutions obtained using an iterative algorithm. Finally, the theoretical results are compared with reported and independently conducted model pile tests to validate the accuracy of the proposed theoretical approach. The experimental results show a good agreement between the predicted and measured values, demonstrating the method’s excellent capability in predicting the load-settlement response of both displacement and non-displacement piles. This paper presents an analytical framework based on the interface constitutive model for analyzing the load-settlement response of single piles, providing a theoretical reference for optimizing the design of pile foundations in sandy soils under vertical loads.
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Calculation model of unlimited earth pressure on both sides of enclosure wall during pre-excavation dewatering
XUE Xiu-li, LIU Zhi-heng, ZENG Chao-feng, BAI Ning, CHEN Hong-bo
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1699-1708.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1056
Abstract ( 48 )  
Pre-excavation dewatering (PED) can induce centimeter-level movements in the enclosure wall. Current foundation pit design theory only proposes a calculation method for excavation-induced force and deformation of the enclosure wall based on the elastic fulcrum method, which does not address PED-induced wall deflections. To continue using the elastic fulcrum method for calculating PED-induced wall deflections, it is crucial to determine the distribution of earth pressure on both sides of the enclosure wall during PED. This study aims to propose a novel model for calculating the PED-induced earth pressure on both sides of the enclosure wall. First, we analyzed the shape and influence range of disturbed soil on both sides of the enclosure wall during PED. Then, we explored the characteristics of soil strain distribution in the disturbed zone and proposed a distribution mode for the soil strain. Furthermore, we established a mathematical equation presenting the relationship between the soil strain and enclosure wall deflections, and proposed a calculation model of earth pressure considering the wall deflections during PED. The proposed calculation model accurately reflects the nonlinear relationship between wall deflections and earth pressure during PED. The obtained model, with its simple formulation and easily available data, could provide an important reference for predicting PED-induced enclosure wall deflections.
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Priority connectivity model of loess microstructure and its significance for preferential flow
PAN Wang-sheng, ZHAO Tian-yin, LI Xin,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1709-1719.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1150
Abstract ( 46 )  
Investigation of loess microstructure can reveal information on the seepage of loess masses and the formation and evolution of sliding surfaces in loess landslides at both macroscopic and mesoscopic levels. A loess microstructure connectivity model, both with and without fractures, is established to investigate the relationships among pore connectivity p, pore variation coefficient λ , maximum fracture span ω , and fracture network penetration q. The connectivity thresholds of these two models are verified through scanning electron microscopy analysis and field seepage tests of loess microstructure. The results show that the existence of fractures, especially their time spans, substantially affects the morphology, size, and distribution of pores in loess. Fractures are important channels for preferential flow and significant contributors to loess preferential seepage under low porosities. The research conclusions from the loess microstructure preferential connectivity model studies agree with the loess seepage test results. These results explain the negative effects of the “flooding-type” irrigation in Nanyuan, Jingyang County, on the stability of high-angle slopes containing fractures and the occurrence of major landslides in Dongfeng and Jiangliu villages.
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Analysis of ballast penetration phenomenon in ballast track under dynamic loads: experimental testing and DEM modeling
ZHANG Jie, NIE Ru-song, HUANG Mao-tong, TAN Yong-chang, LI Ya-feng,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1720-1730.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1058
Abstract ( 53 )  
The penetration of ballast in ballast track significantly affects subgrade performance. A unit specimen was designed with ballast on top and subgrade soil below. Laboratory dynamic triaxial tests and discrete element method (DEM) simulations were used to study the macroscopic deformation behavior and local deformation characteristics of crushed ballast penetration into soil subgrade under dynamic loads. The results indicate that, under train-induced dynamic loads, the ballast and subgrade soil only transmit stress through a limited number of discrete contacts at the interface. As the dynamic stress amplitude increases, the depth of ballast penetration into subgrade soil also increases, exhibiting an exponential relationship with the dynamic stress. The deformation process of the ballast penetration specimens can be divided into three stages: localized compression, shear band formation, and shear band development. Under train-induced loads, ballast penetration significantly increases the porosity of soil samples near the ballast-subgrade interface, and causes significant lateral deformation at the contact interface. Saturated specimens with higher porosity can experience mud pumping under relatively low dynamic stress. The increase in subgrade surface porosity caused by ballast penetration is a significant factor contributing to mud pumping in existing railways. Prevention of mud pumping should focus on preventing the local increase in subgrade porosity caused by ballast penetration. The findings deepen our understanding of the ballast penetration phenomenon and the resulting deformation behavior of the subgrade surface.
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Computational model of CPTu considering temperature effect and drainage state of silt
WANG Kuan-jun, LIU Bin, MO Pin-qiang, LI Guo-yao, ZHU Qi-yin, SHEN Kan-min, HU Jing,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1731-1742.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0990
Abstract ( 79 )  
The potential impact of temperature changes on the properties and behavior of soils is crucial in geotechnical engineering design and applications. A calculation model and analysis method based on cavity expansion theory are proposed to assess the temperature effects and partially drainage conditions of piezocone penetration test (CPTu) in silt. A constitutive model characterizing the temperature effect of silt strength is adopted, with analytical solutions provided for fully undrained and drained conditions. Using Bourke silt as an example, the influence of temperature on expansion pressure is analyzed, revealing that expansion pressure decreases as temperature increases. A semi-analytical solution for cavity expansion under partial drainage condition derived using a linear mapping method. The correlation between drainage state and temperature is established based on physical model test results. Consequently, a CPTu calculation model considering the temperature effect and drainage condition of silty soil is established. This study examines the influence of temperature on CPTu test results at different penetration rates. The results indicate that increased temperature reduces cone tip resistance and pore pressure at the probe shoulder, with the change amplitude increasing as the over-consolidation ratio rises. Finally, the reliability of the model is verified by comparing its predicted results with experimental data.
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Experimental study on bearing capacity of systematic bolt support based on total safety factor method
XIAO Ming-qing, XU Chen, CUI Lan, SHENG Qian, CHEN Jian, XIE Bi-ting, YAN Qing-ming,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1743-1754.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1549
Abstract ( 48 )  
In view of the absence of bearing capacity analysis method for systematic bolt in the current specifications of tunnels, the total safety factor method proposes a load structure model of bolt-rock bearing arch. This method theoretically enables the quantitative design of bolts but lacks experimental verification. To address this, this paper develops a large-scale tunnel structure model experimental system from a structural experimental perspective. It conducts bearing experiments on bolt-rock bearing arch structures in unsupported tunnel and bolted tunnels with different spacings. By monitoring the stress and strain in the surrounding rock mass, tunnel displacement and bolt strain, the failure state and failure load of surrounding rock and bolt are analyzed. The deformation and force characteristics of the bolt-rock bearing arch and the distribution of bolt forces are investigated. The structural bearing capacity of the model experiment and the calculated bearing capacity of the bolt-rock bearing arch under the total safety factor method theory were compared and analyzed. The results show that the bolts can bear the load together with the surrounding rock mass, effectively increasing the confining stress of the surrounding rock mass and enhancing the compressive strength and bearing capacity. The experimental bearing capacity of the bolt-rock bearing arch is consistent with theoretical calculation results, proving the rationality of the bolt-rock bearing arch theory of the total safety factor method. This method is both safe and conservative.
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Dynamic response of jointed granite under low strain rate impact load
WANG Zhi-de, SI Ying-ying, LI Jie, QIAN Meng-fan, AN Jia-xing,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1755-1762.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1225
Abstract ( 39 )  

The presence of joint surfaces in rock masses primarily causes the attenuation of shock stress waves, leading to reduced explosion energy and blasting effectiveness. To investigate the dynamic mechanical properties, stress wave transfer law, and energy transfer law of granite with different joint dip angles under low strain rate impact loads, impact tests were conducted on jointed granite using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) device. The tests involved three different impact pressures and four different dip angles. The results indicate that: (1) In rock samples with joints, the peak stress decreases with the increase of joint dip angle and increases with the increase of impact load. (2) The transmission coefficient initially increases and then decreases with increasing joint dip angles, and initially decreases and then increases with increasing impact load. (3) The energy transfer coefficient initially increases and then decreases with the increase of joint dip angle. For intact rock samples and rock samples with joint dip angles of θ = 0º and 45º, the energy transfer coefficient decreases with the increase of impact load. For rock samples with joint dip angles of θ = 15º and 30º, the energy transfer coefficient of first decreases and then increases with the increase of impact load.

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Shaking table experimental study on the dynamic response characteristics of single and double-row pile-supported road graben slopes
ZHU Dan, JIANG Guan-lu, CHEN Hong-yu, ZHAO Xin-hui, HUANG De-gui, LIU Yi-fu,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1763-1777.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1208
Abstract ( 31 )  
Considering the engineering background of the dangerous western mountain railroad, large-scale shaking table model experiments were conducted on embankment slopes supported by single and double-row piles, subjected to El-Centro wave excitations. Based on parameters such as displacement and acceleration, an in-depth investigation was conducted to study the differences in dynamic response characteristics between the two slope models. Moreover, the reasons for the differences between the two slopes were explored using fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra. The results revealed that both the support effect and the differences in anti-slip piles gradually increased with the increase in the input wave amplitude. At input wave amplitudes of 0.1g−0.3g, both single and double-row pile slopes remained stable, with minimal differences in their overall dynamic response characteristics. However, at an input wave amplitude of 0.4g, significant differences in the dynamic responses of both slopes emerged. Macroscopic damage was more apparent in the single-row pile slope, with high slope surface displacement, accumulated soil damage, and noticeable nonlinear characteristics. At an input wave amplitude of 0.5g−0.6g, both slope models exhibited a pronounced “elevation effect” in the peak ground acceleration (PGA) amplification factor. Additionally, plastic zones were observed on the road cut face and behind the piles in both models. The presence of retaining piles effectively suppressed the upward trend of PGA amplification coefficients along the slope and prevented the connection of plastic zones on the slope surface. Notably, the PGA amplification effect of the single-row pile slope was pronounced, with a wide and deep plastic zone, severe local instability, and relatively weak seismic support effect. The introduction of the FFT spectral ratio revealed that the difference in amplitude amplification effects of single and double-row pile slopes in the 5−10 Hz band was the main reason for the difference in their dynamic responses. Under seismic loading, the failure process of the single-row pile-supported slope involved three stages: initial stability of the slope, plastic deformation of the slope surface soil, and local collapse and disintegration of the slope. In contrast, the double-row pile-supported slope experienced the first two stages of this failure process.
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Installation and pull-out performance of helical pile embedded in sand influenced by advancing ratio
YAN Ran, KONG Gang-qiang, YU Jiang-hua,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1778-1788.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1189
Abstract ( 38 )  
Helical piles have gained widespread application in engineering foundations such as transmission lines and photovoltaic supports. However, the mechanism by which the installation rate affects the installation effect and bearing capacity characteristics of helical piles remains unclear. This study conducted model tests on the installation and uplift resistance of helical piles in sandy soil foundations. The relationships between the advancing ratio and torque, downward pressure of the helical piles were analyzed. A modified calculation method for the correlation coefficient of ultimate bearing capacity-torque-downforce was established. The reliability of the modified calculation method was verified through comparative analysis with experimental results from the literature and other calculation methods. The findings indicate that the advancing ratio has a linear relationship with both the installation torque and downward pressure of the helical piles, with a greater impact on the installation torque. Reducing the advancing ratio during the installation process can effectively enhance the uplift bearing capacity of the helical piles. Under the experimental conditions, the ultimate uplift capacity at an advancing ratio of 0.6 can reach 2.9 times that at an advancing ratio of 2. The proposed calculation method for the ultimate bearing capacity-torque-downforce correlation coefficient in sandy soil foundations exhibits an overall calculation error of less than 30%, demonstrating good accuracy and applicability.
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Investigation of deterioration characteristics and mechanisms of bedrock and overburden layer slope under seismic conditions after rainfall based on deformation
HE Zi-lei, JIANG Guan-lu, FENG Hai-zhou, CHEN Hong-yu, GUO Yu-feng, HE Xiao-long, LI Jie,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1789-1802.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0959
Abstract ( 43 )  
Understanding the destabilization mechanisms in bedrock and overburden layer slopes influenced by both rainfall and seismic activity is of significant engineering importance. A series of large-scale shaking table model tests was conducted to investigate the instability evolution in bedrock and overburden layer slopes after rainfall and seismic events. This study identifies and assesses degradation modes based on spatial deformation characteristics and slope surface displacement patterns. It integrates soil stress-strain behavior, permeability characteristics, seismic stress distribution, and slope deformation characteristics to explore the deformation mechanisms in bedrock and overburden layer slopes after rainfall and seismic events. The results indicate: (1) During rainfall, saturation significantly increases at the slope crest and toe, leading to notable strength degradation without significant overall deformation. However, during seismic activity, the slope crest initially experiences sliding failure, evolving into multi-stage sliding instability. (2) Macroscopic damage occurs suddenly, and the spatial strain distribution within the slope better identifies the evolution of plastic zone expansion, penetration, and instability. (3) The slope’s instability evolution pattern, analyzed by residual displacement ratios, aligns well with the spatial strain evolution within the soil, showing greater sensitivity in identifying the slope’s damage state compared to cumulative displacement. (4) Changes in moisture content affect soil mechanical properties, and post-rainfall infiltration field distribution affects the slope’s overall mechanical behavior and the transmission and spatial distribution of seismic stress. Soil mechanical properties and dynamic stress spatial characteristics determine the slope’s failure modes.
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Study on the magnetic field response law of sandstone during deformation and failure
YIN Shan, SONG Da-zhao, WANG En-yuan, HE Xue-qiu, LI Zhong-hui, LIU Xiao-fei, LIU Yu-bing,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1803-1812.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1582
Abstract ( 39 )  
Investigating the new physical response law of rock failure process will advance rock mass monitoring and early warning technology. This study conducted magnetic field monitoring experiments on sandstone deformation and failure under uniaxial loading and cyclic loading and unloading using fluxgate weak magnetic detection technology. The magnetic field signals during sandstone deformation and failure were tested, and the relationships between the magnetic field, load and acoustic emission were analyzed. The results indicate that sandstone generates magnetic field signals during deformation and failure. During uniaxial loading, as the load increases, the magnetic field signal in the compaction stage fluctuates and rises, with a high fluctuation coefficient. In the elastic stage, the magnetic field signal increases steadily while the fluctuation coefficient decreases. In the plastic stage, the magnetic field signal increases significantly, and the fluctuation coefficient increases in the late plastic stage. In the failure stage, the magnetic field signal rapidly increases, and the fluctuation coefficient changes significantly, corresponding to the load drop and the main failure. Compared to the fluctuation coefficient, the variance of the magnetic field signal remains relatively stable during the first three loading stages, but the variance gradually increases during the failure stage, showing a significant mutation. During cyclic loading and unloading, the magnetic field signal gradually increases with increasing load and decreases with reducing load. Near instability and failure, the magnetic field signal increases rapidly, which is significantly higher than the previous cyclic loading and unloading process. There is a strong correlation between the magnetic field signal and the acoustic emission count, indicating that the generation of the magnetic field is closely related to the deformation and failure of the sample. Under stress, micro-damage continuously forms inside sandstone, leading to non-uniform deformation between adjacent particles. This disrupts the electrical balance at the interface, resulting in the generation and migration of free charges that alter the current. The movement of charges and changes in current produce magnetic field signals. Evaluating rock mass stability using magnetic field signals is expected to be a new non-destructive, non-contact and continuous monitoring method.
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Influence of loading frequency and relative compaction on liquefaction behavior of reconstituted sand in cyclic triaxial tests
THUY Do Van, TIEP Pham Duc, HIEU Nguyen Van, THANG Pham Cao
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1813-1823.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0673
Abstract ( 98 )  
The article investigates the liquefaction behavior of saturated reconstituted sand by cyclic triaxial tests on isotropic consolidated undrained specimens in the laboratory. Experiments conduct using a sinusoidal load with a constant amplitude to evaluate the influence of the loading frequency (at three different frequencies of 0.1 Hz, 0.5 Hz, and 1.0 Hz) and relative compaction (three different relative compactions of 0.95, 0.90, and 0.80) on the liquefaction behavior of the sand, as measured by the shear modulus, damping ratio, axial strain, and excess pore water pressure ratio. Based on the experimental results, it can be observed that for the sand specimen with a relative compaction of 0.95, the loading frequency of 0.1 Hz has a negligible effect on the liquefaction process, as observed over 5 000 loading cycles. In contrast, the effect of this frequency is significant for the sand specimens with relative compactions of 0.90 and 0.80. For the specimen with a relative compaction of 0.80, an increase in frequency to 0.5 Hz results in almost direct liquefaction. This suggests that increasing loading frequency leads to faster liquefaction while increasing relative compaction results in slower liquefaction by contrast. Thus, through a series of tests, these can be considered simulations of the conditions of dynamic loads on the sand particles in the field with different frequencies. The experimental results show that the liquefaction behavior of saturated sand is determined by the following factors: (1) The lower the relative compaction, the easier liquefaction occurs; (2) The higher the loading frequency, the easier liquefaction occurs; (3) The greater the cyclic axial strain, the fewer cycles are required to cause liquefaction; (4) The excess pore water pressure increases with the increase of number of loading cycles until the specimen is completely liquefied.
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Geotechnical Engineering
Dynamic prediction model of mining subsidence combined with improved Weibull time function
ZHANG Yan-jun, YAN Yue-guan, LONG Si-fang, ZHU Yuan-hao, DAI Hua-yang, KONG Jia-yuan,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1824-1834.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1037
Abstract ( 40 )  
Coal mining-induced surface subsidence is a complex, multi-dimensional dynamic process. Dynamic prediction plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude of deformation at any location and time above the goaf, thereby safeguarding ground infrastructure and human life. To achieve dynamic prediction of surface subsidence, an improved Weibull time function model with a single model parameter was developed to address the limitations of the complex structure of the existing model, based on mining subsidence theory. This enhanced model accurately describes surface point subsidence, subsidence velocity, and subsidence acceleration. Additionally, a new dynamic prediction model for mining subsidence was established by integrating the improved Weibull time function model with the existing surface subsidence basin model. The method for determining model parameters and their impact on the shape of the subsidence basin was elaborated in detail. The model’s prediction accuracy and applicability were validated using measured data from working faces 313 and 3214 in a mine. The results indicate that the maximum root mean square error of the improved Weibull time function model is 52 mm, with a maximum relative error of 2.1%, representing a 60.3% and 64.4% improvement, respectively, over the previous version. The predicted subsidence curve shape of the mining subsidence dynamic prediction model aligns with the measured subsidence curve shape, with a maximum root mean square error of 17 mm and a maximum relative error of 1.76%, demonstrating the model’s ability to predict surface subsidence processes with high applicability and reliability. These research findings offer valuable insights for the dynamic prediction of surface subsidence in mining areas.
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A novel method for quality control of vibratory compaction in high-speed railway graded aggregates based on the embedded locking point of coarse particles
DENG Zhi-xing, XIE Kang, LI Tai-feng, WANG Wu-bin, HAO Zhe-rui, LI Jia-shen,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1835-1849.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1001
Abstract ( 36 )  
To address the issues of variable compaction time and single evaluation index based on dry density assessment of compaction quality, a new method of vibratory compaction control for high-speed railway graded aggregate (HRGA) based on coarse particles embedding point is proposed. Firstly, the vibration compaction evaluation system is improved by combining the mechanical indexes of dynamic stiffness Krb and modified foundation coefficient K20. The index of compaction control “embedded locking point” Tlp is then proposed, and the mechanical properties and applicability of graded aggregates before and after Tlp are investigated through indoor tests. Secondly, the relationship between Tlp and various performance indexes of HRGA is established through vibratory compaction test, and the main controlling features of Tlp are analyzed using grey relation analysis (GRA) algorithm. Finally, the Tlp prediction model is proposed based on the machine learning (ML) method, the best Tlp prediction model is selected using the three-level preference system, and the best ML model is interpreted using SHapley Additive exPlanations(SHAP) interpretable method. The results show that the optimal vibration time can be determined based on Tlp, thereby controlling the compaction quality. The main controlling features of the Tlp are maximum particle size of filler dmax, grading parameter b, grading parameter m, flat elongated particles Qe and Los Angeles abrasion LAA based on the GRA algorithm. The comprehensive evaluation index (CEI) of each Tlp prediction model is calculated as follows: artificial neural networks for improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO-ANN) model > support vector regression for improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO-SVR) model > random forests for improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO-RF) model, with the IPSO-ANN model being optimal. The overall importance values  based on SHAP method are ranked as follows: dmax(17.31) > b(13.93) > m(6.59) > Qe(2.17) > LAA(1.54), which corroborates with the results obtained from the GRA algorithm, indicating that the SHAP method can improve the comprehensibility of the ML model. The research results can provide new ideas for quality assessment of vibratory compaction, and also provide strong theoretical support for intelligent control of vibratory compaction.
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Numerical Analysis
Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracture propagation in rock masses with pre-existing double fractures using the phase field method
LÜ Mao-lin, ZHU Zhen-de, ZHOU Lu-ming, GE Xin-liang,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1850-1862.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0962
Abstract ( 57 )  
The morphology of fracture propagation in hydraulic fracturing plays a crucial for exploiting oil, gas, and geothermal energy in deep rock formations. To address fracture propagation in hydraulic fracturing in deep rock formations, this article establishes a stress-seepage coupling model based on the phase field method theory, Biot’s porous elastic medium mechanics theory, and seepage mechanics theory. The equations were discretized using the finite element method, and the Newton-Raphson (NR) and the separated coupling methods were employed to enhance calculation accuracy. The reliability of the model was verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with indoor test simulations and numerical simulations based on the numerical manifold method (NMM), and comparing numerical solution with the theoretical analytical solution. In this study, we utilize the established model to investigate the effects of in-situ stress difference, fracture spacing, and injection flow rate on the propagation of double fractures perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress in hydraulic fracturing. The results demonstrate that an increase in in-situ stress difference leads to a higher deflection angle of the fracture propagation path and more propagation branches. Smaller fracture spacing facilitates easier fracture penetration, while larger spacing increases the deflection angle and propagation length. Additionally, a larger injection flow rate increases fracture propagation length and speed. Understanding the impact of different factors on fracture propagation establishes valuable theoretical foundations for optimizing complex fracture networks in deep rock formations through hydraulic fracturing.
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Numerical analysis of soil pressure distribution law on pile shaft of displacement pile
MA Deng-hui, HAN Xun, CAI Zheng-yin, GUAN Yun-fei,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1863-1872.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1157
Abstract ( 63 )  
The soil compaction effect of pile penetration increases soil pressure on the pile shaft. Analyzing soil pressure changes caused by pile penetration is significance for establishing a calculation method for pile penetration resistance. The large deformation numerical simulation method and Nanshui soil model were used to analyze the pile penetration process in sandy soil. The variation of soil pressure coefficient K under different working conditions was analyzed. Numerical analysis results indicate that the change in soil horizontal stress during the pile penetration process can be divided into three stages: loading, unloading and stress stabilization. The soil horizontal stress peaks when the pile end reaches a certain depth, and then the soil enters the unloading stage as penetration continues, and finally stabilizes. The maximum disturbance range is 5D in the depth direction and 6D in the radial direction. Soil pressure on the pile shaft after penetration is approximately linear, with extreme values at the pile end. The change in pile diameter has an insignificant effect on soil pressure, and the soil pressure on the pile shaft with different diameters is similar. As the interface friction coefficient increases, the soil pressure on the pile shaft gradually rises. Based on the numerical analysis results, a method for calculating pile shaft soil pressure considering the pile-soil interface friction coefficient is proposed.
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Behavior of large-diameter pipe piles in offshore layered soils under lateral dynamic loading
LIN Hao, ZHENG Chang-jie, DING Xuan-ming,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1873-1883.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.1032
Abstract ( 58 )  
The study investigates the dynamic response characteristics of offshore large-diameter pipe piles in layered seabed soil under horizontal dynamic loading, considering the interaction between pipe piles, seawater, and layered seabed soil. Seawater is treated as an inviscid compressible medium to establish the motion equations of outer and inner seawater. The hydrodynamic pressure of outer and inner seawater acting on the offshore pipe piles is derived using the separation variable method and combined with the boundary conditions. The seabed soil is considered as a viscoelastic medium, and its layered nonhomogeneity is simultaneously taken into account. The horizontal resistances of outer and inner seabed soil acting on the pipe piles are derived using the differential variation method in conjunction with the vibrational boundary conditions. The governing equation of the pipe pile is established based on the balance of horizontal force on each pile section. The analytical solution of the horizontal dynamic response of offshore large-diameter pipe piles in layered seabed soil is derived using the transfer matrix method and combined with the continuity condition of pile piles and the boundary conditions of pile head and bottom. Analytical expression of pile head displacement is also obtained. The proposed solution’s results are validated against FEM numerical results and existing analytical solutions to verify its rationality. Finally, based on the presented solution, the sensitivity of the horizontal dynamic responses of the pipe pile-water-layered soils system to certain key parameters, such as hydrodynamic pressure, water depth, soil modulus, and soil layer thickness, is analyzed.
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Short-term rockburst prediction model based on microseismic monitoring and probability optimization naive Bayes
SUN Jia-hao, WANG Wen-jie, XIE Lian-ku,
Rock and Soil Mechanics. 2024, 45 (6):  1884-1894.  DOI: 10.16285/j.rsm.2023.0986
Abstract ( 49 )  
Rockburst is a common ground pressure hazard in underground geotechnical engineering. To predict rockburst accurately in real-time, this study proposes a short-term rockburst prediction model based on microseismic monitoring and probability optimization naive Bayes. Firstly, based on 114 sets of rockburst sample data, four microseismic parameters were selected as predictors using the correlation feature selection algorithm: cumulative number of microseismic events, cumulative microseismic energy, cumulative microseismic apparent volume, and cumulative microseismic energy rate. Secondly, to weaken the conditional independence assumption of the naive Bayes algorithm, the criteria importance through intercriteria correlation method and the similarity function are used to optimize the conditional probability in terms of both attribute weighting and instance weighting. The Mahalanobis distance is introduced to compensate for the loss of prior probability, addressing the decision imbalance caused by conditional probability weighting. Thus, a probability optimization naive Bayes algorithm with conditional probability weighting and prior probability compensation mechanism is proposed to predict the rockburst intensity levels. Finally, the model’s accuracy and reliability are tested through model evaluation, model comparison, and engineering validation. The results show that the proposed model has a prediction accuracy of 86.96% and outperforms other machine learning models, providing a scientific basis for rockburst prediction in practical engineering.
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